- 1 Why the Energiewende
- 2 Technology as a key issue
3 Policies for clean energy
- A Nuclear phase-out
- B Renewable Energy Act with feed-in tariffs and auctions
- C Emissions trading
- D Environmental taxation
- E Cogeneration Act
- F Renewable Energy Heating Act and Market Incentive Program (MAP)
- G Act on Accelerating Grid Expansion
- H Energy-Conservation Ordinance (EnEV) and financial support schemes
- I Ecodesign/ErP Directive
- J International Climate Initiative
- K Coordination with the European Union
- 4 History of the Energiewende
5 European perspectives
- A Energy Transition – Think European
- B Poland’s Energiewende. No, not a Polish joke. A European transition
- C The frontrunner – is Denmark losing its position?
- D Beyond the COP: the state of affairs of the French energy transition
- E Energy in the Czech Republic: baby steps forward, but nuclear plans still dominate
- F Energy Transition in Spain – which way forward?
- G Austria and its energy transition: Passive politicians as key risk
- H Dazed and confused? The UK’s energy policy needs a sense of direction
6 International perspectives
- A Opportunity to Leapfrog into the Renewable Age – Is India on the Right Track?
- B A Struggle between Coal and Renewable Energy in the Philippines
- C Israel: The "Energy Island's" Transition to Energy Independence
- D Is Policy on Track for an Energiewende in Japan?
- E Uruguay: Revolution Rather than Energy Transition?
- F China's Energy Transition: Rapid Growth on a Long Road
- G South Africa's Changing Energy Landscape
7 Questions & Answers
- A Is the energy transition affordable?
- B How will Germany ensure that the poor can still afford energy?
- C When will renewables pay for themselves?
- D Is the energy payback from wind and solar ever positive?
- E Why are low-carbon goals not enough in themselves?
- F Will Germany import more power from abroad after the nuclear phase-out?
- G Did Germany overreact to Fukushima?
- H Are renewables not a relatively expensive way to lower carbon emissions?
- I Will the nuclear phase-out not increase Germany's carbon emissions?
- J Would nuclear power not be an inexpensive way to reduce carbon emissions?
- K Will the lights go out?
- L Will the Energiewende kill jobs?
- M Do Germans support the Energiewende?
- N How can Germany be both a green leader and remain an industrial powerhouse?
- O How are energy-intensive firms exempted from the surcharge for renewable power?
- P What role will shale gas play in the German Energiewende?
- Q Why did carbon emissions increase in 2013, fall in 2014 and rise again in 2015?
- R Is Germany undergoing a coal renaissance?
- S How much electricity storage will Germany need?
- T How can the cost of Germany’s Energiewende be lowered?
- U Why is Germany switching from feed-in tariffs to auctions?
8 Key Findings
- A The German Energiewende is an ambitious, but feasible undertaking.
- B The German energy transition is driven by citizens and communities.
- C The Energiewende is Germany’s largest post-war infrastructure project. It strengthens its economy and creates new jobs.
- D With the Energiewende, Germany aims to not only keep its industrial base, but make it fit for a greener future.
- E Regulation and open markets provide investment certainty and allow small business to compete with large corporations.
- F Germany demonstrates that fighting climate change and phasing out nuclear power can be two sides of the same coin.
- G The German Energiewende is broader than often discussed. It not only includes renewable electricity, but also changes to energy use in the transportation and housing sectors.
- H The German Energiewende is here to stay.
- I The energy transition is affordable for Germany, and it will likely be even more affordable for other countries.
- 9 Glossary
The German Energiewende Book
Policies for clean energy
Germany has implemented a number of laws and programs for its energy transition, and there are also some at the level of the EU. The most important ones are listed below.